A close-up shot of a white dove perched on a branch, symbolizing peace and divine presence, reflecting its biblical significance as a representation of the Holy Spirit.

What Does The Dove Represent In The Bible?

The dove is one of the most iconic symbols in the Bible, representing peace, innocence, purity, and the Holy Spirit. If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer: The dove represents God’s Spirit and blessing.

In this comprehensive article, we will dive deeper into the meaning of the dove symbol across Bible stories and passages. You’ll discover the dove’s significance in key events like Jesus’s baptism and Noah’s flood. We’ll also analyze dove symbolism in biblical dreams and visions.

The Dove Representing God’s Spirit

Noah’s Ark and the Olive Branch

After the Great Flood, Noah released a dove from the ark to see if the waters had receded from the earth (Genesis 8:8-12). The dove returned with an olive leaf in its beak, showing Noah that God’s judgement had passed and new life had begun.

This dove represented the Holy Spirit bringing the good news of God’s salvation and restoration.

Later, the prophet Jeremiah used the dove as a symbol of Israel during its rebellion and exile (Jeremiah 48:28). Even though God’s people had sinned, God still loved them and desired their restoration, just as He had with Noah after the Flood.

The dove reminds us of God’s abiding Spirit which brings comfort, renewal, and hope.

The Dove Descending on Jesus at His Baptism

When Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist, the Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove (Matthew 3:16). The dove likely recalled Noah’s dove bringing the olive branch of peace. Just as the first dove signaled a fresh start for mankind, this dove over Jesus signified a new beginning as Jesus launched His ministry to fulfill all righteousness on behalf of sinners.

The dove also calls to mind the Spirit’s gentle fluttering over the waters at the dawn of creation (Genesis 1:2). As the Spirit hovered over the waters then, so He came upon Jesus by the Jordan River. This marked Jesus’ commissioning for His work of redeeming the creation fallen into sin.

Throughout Scripture, the dove represents the comforting, renewing and gently empowering Holy Spirit. Seeing the Spirit descend on Jesus, John the Baptist knew Jesus was the Son of God sent to take away the sins of the world (John 1:29-34).

The Dove Representing Peace and Reconciliation

The Dove as an Offering Sacrifice

In the Bible, doves were often used as an offering or sacrifice to God. According to Leviticus 5:7, if a person could not afford a lamb for a trespass offering, they could instead offer two turtledoves or two young pigeons.

The dove symbolized purification, reconciliation and peace between God and man (Leviticus 5:7). When Jesus was presented at the temple as a baby, Mary and Joseph offered “a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons” as a sacrifice (Luke 2:24).

This showed that Jesus came to bring peace and reconciliation between God and mankind.

Sending Out the Twelve Disciples

When Jesus sent out his twelve disciples to preach and teach, he instructed them to be as gentle and harmless as doves (Matthew 10:16). Doves represent purity, peace and innocence. Jesus was sending out the disciples as innocent ambassadors of peace, not warriors.

He told them to preach a message of repentance and the coming of God’s kingdom – a kingdom of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit (Romans 14:17). When the disciples returned, they were joyful that even the demons had submitted to them in Jesus’ name (Luke 10:17-20).

Jesus fulfilled Isaiah’s prophecy that the Messiah would proclaim peace to the nations (Isaiah 52:7).

The dove symbolizes the Holy Spirit that empowered Jesus during his earthly ministry and after his resurrection. At Jesus’ baptism, the Spirit descended on him like a dove (Matthew 3:16, Mark 1:10, Luke 3:22, John 1:32).

This represented God anointing Jesus for ministry and affirming him as the Son of God. Jesus promised his disciples that he would send the Holy Spirit to them after his ascension (John 14:16-18, 26). The Holy Spirit would empower them to spread the good news of God’s kingdom across the world, reconciling and bringing peace between God and man.

The Dove Symbolizing Purity and Innocence

The Dove in Songs of Solomon

In the beautiful love poem of Songs of Solomon, the dove is portrayed as a symbol of fidelity and pure love between a bride and bridegroom. For example, in Song of Solomon 1:15 the bride says, “How beautiful you are, my darling! Oh, how beautiful! Your eyes are doves.”

Again in Song of Solomon 5:2, the bridegroom declares, “Open to me, my sister, my darling, my dove, my perfect one.” This connection between doves and romantic love demonstrates the dove’s representation of purity, faithfulness and innocence.

Doves were also associated with lovemaking in ancient Israel. Their cooing and mating habits reflected the intimacy between lovers. So within the context of marriage, the dove embodied the wholesomeness and sanctity of sexual love.

The dove’s link to romance and marriage aligns with its identity as a creature of gentleness, devotion and innocence.

The Dove in Biblical Laws and Rituals

Several Bible passages establish the dove as a symbol of purity and innocence through its inclusion in ritual practices and ceremonial laws. For instance, Leviticus 12:6-8 prescribes the offering of a dove for the purification of a woman after childbirth.

The dove offering indicates the woman’s restored ritual cleanliness. Also, in Luke 2:22-24, Joseph and Mary sacrifice two doves or pigeons when they present the infant Jesus at the temple. This offering demonstrates their purity and Jesus’ sinless nature.

Furthermore, doves were the only birds suitable for sacrifice, according to Leviticus 1:14. God commanded Noah to include doves on the ark (Genesis 8:8-12), reflecting their approved status for religious use.

Overall, these scriptural regulations reveal how the dove’s gentle and spotless essence made it an appropriate creature for consecrated offerings and purification rituals.

Interpreting the Dove in Dreams and Visions

The dove is a universally recognized symbol of peace, love, and the Holy Spirit. When we see doves in our dreams and visions, it is important to pay attention to the context and our emotional response.

Joseph’s Dream of the Sun, Moon and Eleven Stars

In Genesis 37, Joseph had a dream where the sun, moon, and eleven stars bowed down to him. His father Jacob interpreted this dream to mean that he and Joseph’s brothers would bow down to Joseph one day. Soon after Joseph was sold into slavery by his jealous brothers.

But the dream came true years later when Joseph became a powerful leader in Egypt and his family bowed down to him asking for food.

This story shows how dove dreams can foretell the future in symbolic ways. The dove likely represents the presence of the Holy Spirit guiding Joseph’s destiny. If we dream of a dove, it could signify an important message from God about our purpose in life.

Interpreting Dove Imagery in Revelation

The final book of the Bible, Revelation, contains apocalyptic visions full of symbolism. In Revelation 12:14, the woman is given two wings of a great eagle to escape the dragon. Many scholars believe the wings represent God’s divine protection and intervention.

Later in Revelation 18:2, a fallen angel cries that “Babylon is fallen.” Some theologians think the angel took the form of a dove, representing the Holy Spirit pronouncing God’s judgment.

So if we see a dove in a dream or vision, it may indicate that the Holy Spirit is trying to reveal something important. We should pray for wisdom to understand the meaning behind dove imagery.


As we have explored, the dove symbol carries profound, multilayered meanings in the Bible—from representing God’s Spirit, to embodying peace, to indicating purity and innocence. When we see the dove in pivotal biblical events, rituals, dreams and visions, it signifies God’s blessing, favor and divine presence with his people.

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